¿Qué es el Directorio LDAP?

LDAP (“Lightweight Directory Acces Protocol”, en español Protocolo Ligero de Acceso a Directorios) es un protocolo de tipo cliente-servidor para acceder a un servicio de directorio.

Se usó inicialmente como un Front-end o interfaz final para x.500, pero también puede usarse con servidores de directorio únicos y con otros tipos de servidores de directorio como OpenLDAP.

Cada item (entrada) en el directorio LDAP describe un objeto (por ejemplo: una persona, un recurso de red, una organización) y tiene un único identificador llamado Nombre Distinguido (DN, Distingued Name). La entrada consiste de una colección de atributos (por ejemplo una persona podría tener apellido, organización, e-mail). Para encontrar las entradas hay que navegar a través del Arbol de Información de Directorio (DIT, Directory Information Tree). En la raíz del árbol se encuentra El Mundo, el cual esta subdividido en el siguiente nivel en paises, y en el siguiente en organizaciones. Dentro de las organizaciones se alamcenan información de gente, recursos, etc.

La mayoría de la información disponible hoy vía LDAP es sobre personas y organizaciones, pero en LDAP también se puede almacenar información sobre otras entidades (o objetos) como recursos de red, aplicaciones…

El servicio LDAP se utiliza principalmente para buscar información de personas (dirección, número de teléfono, e-mail, etc.). Los campos básicos para realizar la búsqueda son: el nombre de la persona y el nombre de la organización a la que pertenece la persona (y departamento dentro de la organización).

Fuentes para Flock Browser 1.2.6 en Debian 5 Lenny y KDE 4.1

Para mejorar la visualización de las páginas web en Flock Browser debemos bajarnos algunas fuentes,
lo haremos mediante el gestor de paquetes Synaptic y las fuentes que instalaremos son:

  • ttf-freefont
  • ttf-bitstream-vera
  • ttf-linux-libertine

Una vez instaladas debemos configurar nuestro navegador, para ello

Debemos ir al menu Editar/Preferencias y establecer el tipo de letra como DejaVu Sans


Pulsar Avanzadas

Finalmente establecer los tipos de letras tal y como se muestran en la imagen
y aumentar el tipo de letra mínimo a 11.


Aceptar y Cerrar.

Ya podemos disfrutar de una visualizació más agradable de las tipografias en nuestro navegador.

Axiis un Framework para la generación de gráficos mediante Flex

Flex Open Source Data Visualization Framework: Axiis

Posted by Jon Rose on Jun 03, 2009 12:16 PM

TopicsWeb 2.0 ,Rich Internet Apps TagsFlex ,ActionScript ,Flash

A new open source addition to the Adobe Flex world is Axiis, a data visualization framework released in May under the MIT license. Data visualization is a term frequently used to describe graphical views of application data, such as charts and graphs.

Axiis is built using Degrafa, an open source declarative graphics framework for Flex applications. Degrafa makes it easy to draw graphics, which is heavily utilized by Axiis. Degrafa itself is not sufficient for building a framework like Axiis because it does not have default capabilities for binding data to the visuals. One could think of Axiis as an extension of Degrafa.

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InfoQ: ActionScript 3 Site Framework – Fosfr

ActionScript 3 Site Framework – Fosfr

Posted by Moxie Zhang on Jun 08, 2009 09:15 AM

Community Java Topics Rich Internet Apps Tags ActionScript

There are many different approaches to develop RIA based web sites. Flash sites are particular appealing to businesses or individuals involving in rich media contents. Fosfr is an ActionScript 3 site framework that is developed to build full Flash site. InfoQ interviewed Fosfr creator, Jeff DePascale, to learn more about the insights.

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Crear un Live-CD personalizado con Ubuntu y UCK

Building Customized Ubuntu Live-CDs With UCK On Ubuntu 9.04

Building Customized Ubuntu Live-CDs With UCK On Ubuntu 9.04 | HowtoForge – Linux Howtos and Tutorials

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Install Windows XP on a Mini-Note (USB stick method)

Installing Windows XP or any other operating system is easy if you have a USB optical disc drive. But if all you’ve got is a USB flash drive and another computer with a DVD burner, you can still install Windows XP (or many Linux distributions for that matter) on a disc drive-less ultraportable like the HP Mini-Note or the Asus Eee PC. After spending most of Saturday installing Windows XP on my HP Mini-Note I thought I’d share my results with you. Remember, your results may very, so while these are the steps that worked for me, they may not work for you. For example, depending on the version of Windows XP you are using, you may need a different hotfix to install the audio drivers.

There were two resources that were extraordinarily helpful. Bsumpter at MiniNoteUser wrote up an excellent tutorial for installing XP on a Mini-Note, and EeeGuides has a great walkthrough for installing XP on an Eee PC using a flash drive. By combining these methods and a few other, I was able to setup my Mini-Note with a Windows partition, a spare partition for installing Linux, and a large data partition for shared files.

Here’s what you’ll need:

  1. 1 USB flash drive, 1GB or larger
  2. 1 Windows XP installation disc
  3. Assorted files that I’ll describe as we go along.

Preparing the flash drive

First up, we need to prepare the flash drive.

  1. Download and unzip this file, which should contain 2 folders: 1 titled Bootsect, and the other USB_prep8.
  2. Navigate to the USB_prep8 folder and click on usb_prep8.cmd. This will bring up a Windows console window.
  3. Press any key to continue and a PeToUSB window will open.
  4. Make sure your flash drive is selected, and click start to format your flash drive.
  5. When the format is complete, click OK, but do not close the PeToUSB window or the Windows Console.
  6. Open a new console window by typing “cmd” into the run box in the Windows Start Menu.
  7. Find your Bootsect folder (if you’re not used to DOS commands, you can type “dir” to list directories and files, type “cd foldername” to navigate to a folder name – called foldername in this example, and if there’s a long folder name you can save time by typing the “cd” and just the first few letters and then hitting the Tab key to fill in the rest of the name).
  8. Once you’re in the Bootsect folder, type “bootsect.exe /nt52 g:” if “g” is the letter assigned to your flash drive. If it’s E, then change the letter to e. If it’s Z, make it z. Get it?
  9. When this is done, you should see a message letting you know that the bootcode was updated, and you can close this console window (but not the other console window).
  10. Close the PeToUSb Window, but make sure not to close the remaining console window yet
  11. You should now see a list of 8 options in the console.
  12. Select one and find the drive with your Windows installation disc.
  13. Select 2 and pick a random drive letter (but not one that’s already on your PC, since this will be a virtual drive used for copying your files).
  14. Select 3 and enter the drive letter for your USB flash drive.
  15. Select 4 and follow the rest of the on-screen directions and you should be all set.

The process should take about 15-20 minutes. When it’s done, you should have a bootable USB stick that you can use to install Windows XP the same way you would if you had a CD/DVD drive.

A few notes here. First of all, there’s a chance you may get down to step 15 and the program will tell you that it can’t create the virtual drive. This may happen if you’ve already gone through the whole process and are trying to do it again to fix problems. The solution seems to be rebooting your computer and trying again. Or at least that’s what worked for me.

Second, if you use NLite to shrink/slipstream/otherwise modify your Windows XP installation file, make sure you do not remove “manual installation files,” or your USB stick will be pretty much useless.

Installing XP on the Mini-Note

Now it’s time to load Windows XP onto your Mini-Note. If you have a USB CD/DVD drive, you probably skipped all the stuff above, and that’s fine. Most of the following steps should work as well. These instructions should work whether you’re installing Windows XP on a system that came preloaded with SUSE or Windows Vista.

  1. Insert your USB flash drive in one of the USB ports on your Mini-Note.
  2. Power on your computer and hit F9 to bring up a boot device selection window.
  3. Choose your flash drive, or if you’re using a USB optical disc drive, select that instead.
  4. Select 2 for a text-based installation.
  5. Make sure to delete all of the partitions on the hard drive. While you may have some success creating separate partitions on your hard drive using this method, I did not. If you find yourself with a Hal.dll or bootloader missing error when you’re finished, there’s a good chance it’s because you did not delete all of the partitions. Note that I will be providing instructions in the next section for partitioning your hard drive after installing Windows XP, so you can still create a Linux partition later.
  6. Create one large NTFS partition (using the quick option will save you a lot of time)
  7. Follow the on-screen directions.
  8. At least once during the install process, you will be prompted to reboot your computer. If you try to let it boot from the hard drive, you’ll get an error message. What you need to do is hit F9 again when it reboots and this time select option 1 for a GUI setup.
  9. Once you’re done installing XP, you may notice that you are unable to boot into Windows from the hard drive. If you have the USB disk installed, again hit F9, and select the GUI option again. Windows should start. You’ll need to edit the boot.ini file:
    1. Type “msconfig” into the run box in the start menu
    2. Select the BOOT.INI tab
    3. First, try the “Check All Boot Paths,” option. This may solve your problem by finding and removing the incorrect boot settings.
    4. You may also need to edit the boot.ini file manually if it doesn’t read something like ‘multi(o)disk(0)rdisk(o)partition(1)\Windows=”Windows XP Pro” /fastdetect’
    5. The most likely problem is that wrong partition is selected. It may say (0) or (2) or something like that. The steps below will show you how to backup and edit it.
    6. Open your System Properties by right-clicking on My Computer and choosing Properties. Alternately, you could type “sysdm.cpl” into the run box in the start menu
    7. Select the Advanced Tab
    8. Click the Settings option under Star

      tup and Recovery

    9. Click the button that says Edit to open up your boot.ini file in Notepad. It’s a good idea to save a backup now by selecting Save As, and saving the file to a place where you won’t forget it.
    10. Now you can (somewhat) safely edit the boot.ini file, changing the partition number or other settings to more closely resemble the one I listed above. Save your file, and hopefully you’ll be able to reboot without your USB stick.

Configuring Windows XP

Update: HP has added Windows XP drivers to its support page for the Mini-Note. You should try these official drivers before using the drivers listed below.

Now you should have a working Windows XP desktop, but you’ll find that you can’t connect to the internet via Ethernet or WLAN, you have no sound, and no support for the Fn keys. In order to fix these issues you’re going to need a few files. I’ve wrapped them all up into a ZIP file which you can download. 

Once you’ve downloaded this file using another computer, you can copy it to your Mini-Note using a flash drive or SD card. Or if you’d rather just install the Ethernet drive so you can download the full 20MB ZIP file on your Mini-Note, you can find the Broadcom Ethernet Driver here. Once you unzip the files into a folder, you should have everything you need to get Windows XP up and running.

To install the Broadcom driver:

  1. Open the device manager by right-clicking on the My Computer dialog, selecting Hardware, and then Device Manager
  2. You should notice a bunch of little yellow alert icons. One will say something like Gigabit Ethernet. Honestly I forget exactly what I said, but it was pretty obvious.
  3. Right click on the Ethernet icon and select Update Driver.
  4. Select the Have Disk option, and navigate to the subfolder labeled win_xp_2k3_32 and choose the b57win32.inf file.

Now you should be able to connect to the internet, activate windows, and download most of the rest of the drivers you need from windows update. You’ll need to select the Custom option in order to get some of these updates. This should provide the drivers for your WLAN, touchpad, and other hardware.

Note that Windows Update didn’t automatically suggest the webcam driver for me. In order to install it, I had to find the webcam in the Device Manager (once all the other drivers, including the audio driver — see below — were installed, it was the only devices with a yellow flag next to it), and select the Install software automatically option. That did the trick.

Next, let’s enable sound. There does not appear to be a working audio driver for XP yet, but I’m holding out hope that HP will post one on its website when the company begins offering Mini-Note computers preloaded with Windows XP. I’m not going to hold my breath though. HP currently sells Mini-Notes preloaded with SUSE Enterprise, but there are no drivers or other support files on the HP web site for this configuration yet. Anyway, what you need to do is install a hotfix that will let you run the Windows Vista audio driver.

  1. Run the KB888111.exe patch. If you have Windows XP SP1, you can run the kb888111xpsp1.exe file instead. Note that you should do this before upgrading to Windows XP SP2 or SP3. In fact, when I tried to update my system from SP1 to SP2, I wound up with an unbootable system, so if you have a Windows XP Sp1 install disc, I’d recommend skipping SP2 altogether and jumping straight ahead to SP2. You can either grab a release candidate of SP3, wait a few days for Microsoft to release it officially, or if you look around I’m sure you can find it today.
  2. The file called sp38873.exe is the audio driver. Go ahead and click it and it will start to install the Vista audio drivers. Installation will fail because you’re not running Windows Vista, but the installer will create a folder that contains the driver.
  3. Find your sound device in the Device Manager. It should still be an unknown device with a big ole yellow flag next to it. Select update driver, choose the have disk option, and navigate to the folder where you unzipped your Vista audio drivers.

Keep in mind that this audio driver is not designed to run on Windows. And every time you boot your computer, a pop up window will alert you to this fact. Here’s how to disable this pop up:

  1. Type “msconfig” into the run box in the start menu.
  2. Select the startup tab.
  3. Uncheck the box next to smax4pnp.
  4. Click OK and reboot your computer.

Finally, you can install the HP QuickLuanch buttons to add support for the Fn keys. All you have to do here is click the file called HP buttons SP32280.exe and ignore any messages that pop up during this installation.

Now everything should work properly. You’ll probably want to adjust your display settings to use large or extra large fonts and large icons. The HP QuickLaunch utility also includes a Desktop Zoom utility which may help make your Mini-Note display a bit easier to see. But this computer has got a super-sharp display, so you may find that you need to tweak the default font sizes in other applications including Firefox if you want to be able to read your screen without squinting.

Using Parted Magic to create new partitions for Linux or other operating systems

While I tend to use Windows XP on a day to day basis, I wanted to make this a dual boot system so I can install Linux on a separate partition. Most Linux distributions aren’t very particular about where they’re installed. You can put them on a second or third partition, or even on an SD card in your card reader. But Windows likes to have the first partition all to itself. So while you may be able to use the Windows installer to set up partitions on the hard drive, I had more success installing Windows XP first, and then using Parted Magic to resize the Windows partition and create additional partitions.

The best time to do this is right after you install Windows. Your main partition will be fairly clean which will make the resizing operation go much more quickly. We’re talking about the difference between a minute or two and a half hour or more. You’ll also save yourself a lot of pain and heartache if something goes wrong and you wind up wiping your Windows partition, because you won’t have spent days loading and configuring all of your favorite programs yet.

I’m going to assume you’re still using a USB flash drive, but you can also use Parted Magic from a CD-ROM. Detailed instructions for setting up either a flash drive or a CD-ROM are available from the Parted Magic homepage. The main difference is that if you’re using a flash drive, you need to use SYSLINUX to make it bootable.

Once you’ve got your installation media:

  1. Reboot your Mini-Note with the flash drive or CD-ROM plugged into a USB port.
  2. Hit F9 and choose the device you want to boot from.
  3. From the boot menu, make sure to selection option 4: Failsafe Settings
  4. W

    ait a few minutes until you’re presented with a command prompt that says “root@PartedMagic:~#”

  5. Type “menu”
  6. Choose Xvesa (if you had tried almost anything other than option 4 in step 3, the system would try to boot using Xorg and your display would look all funny/unusable)
  7. You should now see a graphical user interface that looks a bit like this:
  8. Click the little blue icon on the bottom of the screen that says “VisParted.” This will bring up a partition manager
  9. Your primary hard drive should be listed as /dev/sda. But if it’s not, it shouldn’t be too hard to find since you probably only have one 120GB hard drive connected to your PC. Note that VisParted will say your hard drive is actually closer to 112GB.
  10. There should be one large partition labeled as /dev/sda1. You can right click on this and choose the resize/move option and then resize the partition either by dragging the edges or entering a value into the “new size” box.
  11. Once your Windows partition is shrunk, you an either leave the rest of your hard drive unpartitioned for future use, create an ext2, ext3 or other partition for Linux, or do something else altogether.
  12. Click the Apply button to execute.
  13. When Parted Magic is done working its magic, you can reboot your system by clicking on the shutdown menu at the bottom right side of your screen. If everything went properly, you should still be able to boot into Windows, but you’ll find that your Windows partition is smaller.

Personally, I decided to make a 25GB Windows XP partition for files and settings, a 15GB ext2 partition for installing Ubuntu or other operating systems, and I made a third NTFS partition for storing data that will be accessible no matter which OS I use.

ISO image to USB flash


The xcopy command does work. I don’t think you can create a bootable USB stick in WinXP. Only Vista. At least I haven’t been able to do it. It worked just fine for me in Vista. I made my flash drive bootable and copied the vista files from the DVD and now I have a bootable vista flash drive. I’m going to try to do the same with an ISO file on a cd of ShadowProtect. I hope it works. The instructions I found are these:

This operation assumes your machine can boot from a USB enabled device. Check your BIOS to make sure. You also MUST have a DVD copy of Vista to install the source files from the DVD to a USB flash drive:

1. Insert your USB flash drive and enter the following commands:

(please note this list assumes that your USB flash drive will be seen as disk 1. To confirm that it is type “list disk” after you’ve entered the DISKPART command) Otherwise you may wipe a different drive (such as your hard disk drive!)

2. Type:


select disk 1


create partition primary

select partition 1


format fs=fat32



At this point your USB drive is formatted. DO NOT format the drive from within Windows. You MUST have a DVD copy of Vista to copy the source files from.

The final preparation step is to copy the installation files to your flash drive, this can be done by running the following command:

(Please note D: is the drive letter for the source files and E: is the drive letter for your flash drive, if they are different on your system you need to change them accordingly).

Exit DISKPART. Type:

xcopy d:\*.* /s/e/f e:\

Thats it, configure usb device as primary boot device in your bios and install.